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**A spreadsheet** is a grid in which data is displayed and stored in cells. A cell is marked by row number and column number. The address box displays current cell address and data can be filtered and sorted. Data entered in a cell can be seen in the entry bar.

** Basics of Spreadsheets-Rows-Columns-Cells **

Spreadsheet is represented by rows, columns, and cells (intersection of rows and columns). Column is the vertical space that moves up and down and letters are used to represent column’s location. Row is the horizontal space and numbers are used to represent row’s location. A cell is addressed by its row and column names and types of data in a cell can be text, numbers, constant, and formulas. Row number and column letter represents name of each cell.

What type of data can be recorded with a spread sheet ?

There are three types of data that can be entered in an Excel: label, constants, and function and formulas.

**Basics of Labels-Constants-Formula **

**Labels**: Labels are used as a row or column headers, names, and to identify a data entered in the cell. By default, labels are aligned left in the cell.

**Constants**: Constants are normally numerical data that is entered in the cell. Constants are not derived from any analysis tools or equations. Calculations can be done using the entries in the cell and entries are right aligned in the cell.

**Function and Formulas**: Formulas and functions are mathematical expressions that can be used to analyze or manipulate data that have been entered in the cell. These expressions normally start with an equal sign.

**How to do Basic Math **

Formulas in Excel always start with = sign and this tells that the following cells or numbers form a formula. The formula is normally calculated from left to right. Formulas follow a particular syntax, an equal sign followed by the elements (operands) need to be calculated, and operators (+,-,*, /… etc) that separates the elements. An operand could be a constant value, a label, a range reference or cell, a worksheet function, or a name. The order of operation can be changed by using parenthesis. Only cell location is specified in the formula and excel extract the data from the location and input the data in the formula.

·Creating Formulas and Charts in Excel

**Formulas in Excel **

Functions | Description | Example |

SUM | Adds data in the cells range. | SUM(D1:D6) |

AVERAGE | Finds the average of data in the cells. | AVERAGE(D1:D6) |

MIN | Finds the minimum value in the cells. | MIN(D1:D6) |

MAX | Finds the maximum value in the cells. | MAX(D1:D6) |

COUNT | This function normally counts the number of cells in the range reference. | COUNT(D1:D6) |

IF | In this function, if condition is satisfied, first answer is returned. If not second answer is returned. | IF(B2>0,”yes”, “no”) |

SQRT | Finds the square root of an entry. | SQRT(D3) |

PI | Evaluates the value to PI. | PI() |

**Spreadsheet uses built-in trigonometric functions. By default, the arguments for the COS (), SIN (), and TAN () functions are radians. **

Excel Expression | Examples |

SIN(number) | SIN(60) |

COS(number) | COS(1) |

TAN(number) | TAN(1.5) |

**How to Format Text, Numbers, Column Width, Inserting Rows and Columns and Charts or Graphs? **

To change width and height:

·Select the rows or columns that need to be adjusted.

·Select Format menu,

·To change column width, choose Column submenu, and select Width.

·To change row height, select submenu Row, and select Height.

**Insert Rows: **

·Select a row or column where an insert has to be done.

·On the selected cells, right click and select Insert to insert a new row or column.

**Format Text, Number: **

·To format text, select Format, choose Cells, and click Alignment. This has many options for text alignment.

·To format numbers, select Format, choose Cells, and select Number tab. This has many categories, type the change and click OK.

**Making a Chart: **

Chart can be prepared using chart wizard. Select the cell where the chart needs to be created. Click Chart Wizard, choose chart type like pie chart, bar chart, or line chart. Then verify the data to be added in the chart, next verify the chart title, legend information, and axis titles. Finally, options will be given to open the chart as a new window or in the current excel as an object.

**Other Excel and File Resources**:

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